# Heat flux deutsch

05.03.2018

Übersetzung im Kontext von „HEAT FLUX“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Instrumented unit for measuring temperatures and heat flux in evaporative. heat flux Übersetzung im Glosbe-Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch, Online- Wörterbuch, kostenlos. Millionen Wörter und Sätze in allen Sprachen. Übersetzungen für heat flux im Deutsch» Englisch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online :Flux.Once the heat flux sensor is calibrated it can then be used to directly measure heat flux without requiring the rarely known value of thermal resistance or thermal conductivity.

Such a balance can be set up for any physical system, from chemical reactors to living organisms, and generally takes the following form.

Now, if the only way the system exchanges energy with its surroundings is through heat transfer, the heat rate can be used to calculate the energy balance, since.

In real-world applications one cannot know the exact heat flux at every point on the surface, but approximation schemes can be used to calculate the integral, for example Monte Carlo integration.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Refer to the article Flux for more detail. Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.

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The concept of heat flux was a key contribution of Joseph Fourier , in the analysis of heat transfer phenomena [3].

One could argue, based on the work of James Clerk Maxwell , [5] that the transport definition precedes the way the term is used in electromagnetism.

The specific quote from Maxwell is:. In the case of fluxes, we have to take the integral, over a surface, of the flux through every element of the surface.

The result of this operation is called the surface integral of the flux. It represents the quantity which passes through the surface.

In the latter case flux can readily be integrated over a surface. By contrast, according to the second definition, flux is the integral over a surface; it makes no sense to integrate a second-definition flux for one would be integrating over a surface twice.

This is ironic because Maxwell was one of the major developers of what we now call "electric flux" and "magnetic flux" according to the second definition.

Their names in accordance with the quote and first definition would be "surface integral of electric flux" and "surface integral of magnetic flux", in which case "electric flux" would instead be defined as "electric field" and "magnetic flux" defined as "magnetic field".

Given a flux according to the second definition, the corresponding flux density , if that term is used, refers to its derivative along the surface that was integrated.

By the Fundamental theorem of calculus , the corresponding flux density is a flux according to the first definition. Given a current such as electric current—charge per time, current density would also be a flux according to the first definition—charge per time per area.

Due to the conflicting definitions of flux , and the interchangeability of flux , flow , and current in nontechnical English, all of the terms used in this paragraph are sometimes used interchangeably and ambiguously.

Concrete fluxes in the rest of this article will be used in accordance to their broad acceptance in the literature, regardless of which definition of flux the term corresponds to.

Here are 3 definitions in increasing order of complexity. Each is a special case of the following. In all cases the frequent symbol j , or J is used for flux, q for the physical quantity that flows, t for time, and A for area.

These identifiers will be written in bold when and only when they are vectors. In this case the surface in which flux is being measured is fixed, and has area A.

The surface is assumed to be flat, and the flow is assumed to be everywhere constant with respect to position, and perpendicular to the surface.

Second, flux as a scalar field defined along a surface, i. As before, the surface is assumed to be flat, and the flow is assumed to be everywhere perpendicular to it.

However the flow need not be constant. Rather than measure the total flow through the surface, q measures the flow through the disk with area A centered at p along the surface.

In this case, there is no fixed surface we are measuring over. I is defined picking the unit vector that maximizes the flow around the point, because the true flow is maximized across the disk that is perpendicular to it.

The unit vector thus uniquely maximizes the function when it points in the "true direction" of the flow. These direct definitions, especially the last, are rather unwieldy.

For example, the argmax construction is artificial from the perspective of empirical measurements, when with a Weathervane or similar one can easily deduce the direction of flux at a point.

Rather than defining the vector flux directly, it is often more intuitive to state some properties about it. Furthermore, from these properties the flux can uniquely be determined anyway.

This is, the component of flux passing through the surface i. The only component of flux passing normal to the area is the cosine component.

For vector flux, the surface integral of j over a surface S , gives the proper flowing per unit of time through the surface.

Unlike in the second set of equations, the surface here need not be flat. Eight of the most common forms of flux from the transport phenomena literature are defined as follows:.

These fluxes are vectors at each point in space, and have a definite magnitude and direction. Also, one can take the divergence of any of these fluxes to determine the accumulation rate of the quantity in a control volume around a given point in space.

For incompressible flow , the divergence of the volume flux is zero. In turbulent flows, the transport by eddy motion can be expressed as a grossly increased diffusion coefficient.

So the probability of finding a particle in a differential volume element d 3 r is. Then the number of particles passing perpendicularly through unit area of a cross-section per unit time is the probability flux;.

This is sometimes referred to as the probability current or current density, [10] or probability flux density. As a mathematical concept, flux is represented by the surface integral of a vector field , [12].

For the second, n is the outward pointed unit normal vector to the surface. The surface has to be orientable , i. Also, the surface has to be actually oriented, i.

The surface normal is usually directed by the right-hand rule. Conversely, one can consider the flux the more fundamental quantity and call the vector field the flux density.

Often a vector field is drawn by curves field lines following the "flow"; the magnitude of the vector field is then the line density, and the flux through a surface is the number of lines.

Lines originate from areas of positive divergence sources and end at areas of negative divergence sinks. See also the image at right: If the surface encloses a 3D region, usually the surface is oriented such that the influx is counted positive; the opposite is the outflux.

The divergence theorem states that the net outflux through a closed surface, in other words the net outflux from a 3D region, is found by adding the local net outflow from each point in the region which is expressed by the divergence.

To define the heat flux at a certain point in space, one takes the limiting case where the size of the surface becomes infinitesimally small.

The negative sign shows that heat flux moves from higher temperature regions to lower temperature regions. The multi-dimensional case is similar, the heat flux goes "down" and hence the temperature gradient has the negative sign:.

The measurement of heat flux can be performed in a few different manners. A commonly known, but often impractical, method is performed by measuring a temperature difference over a piece of material with known thermal conductivity.

This method is analogous to a standard way to measure an electric current, where one measures the voltage drop over a known resistor.

Usually this method is difficult to perform since the thermal resistance of the material being tested is often not known.

Using the thermal resistance, along with temperature measurements on either side of the material, heat flux can then be indirectly calculated.

These parameters do not have to be known since the heat flux sensor enables an in-situ measurement of the existing heat flux by using the Seebeck-Effect.

Once the heat flux sensor is calibrated it can then be used to directly measure heat flux without requiring the rarely known value of thermal resistance or thermal conductivity.

The specific quote from Maxwell is:. In the case of fluxes, we have to take the integral, over a surface, of the flux through every element of the surface.

The result of this operation is called the surface integral of the flux. It represents the quantity which passes through the surface.

In the latter case flux can readily be integrated over a surface. By contrast, according to the second definition, flux is the integral over a surface; it makes no sense to integrate a second-definition flux for one would be integrating over a surface twice.

This is ironic because Maxwell was one of the major developers of what we now call "electric flux" and "magnetic flux" according to the second definition.

Their names in accordance with the quote and first definition would be "surface integral of electric flux" and "surface integral of magnetic flux", in which case "electric flux" would instead be defined as "electric field" and "magnetic flux" defined as "magnetic field".

Given a flux according to the second definition, the corresponding flux density , if that term is used, refers to its derivative along the surface that was integrated.

By the Fundamental theorem of calculus , the corresponding flux density is a flux according to the first definition.

Given a current such as electric current—charge per time, current density would also be a flux according to the first definition—charge per time per area.

Due to the conflicting definitions of flux , and the interchangeability of flux , flow , and current in nontechnical English, all of the terms used in this paragraph are sometimes used interchangeably and ambiguously.

Concrete fluxes in the rest of this article will be used in accordance to their broad acceptance in the literature, regardless of which definition of flux the term corresponds to.

Here are 3 definitions in increasing order of complexity. Each is a special case of the following. In all cases the frequent symbol j , or J is used for flux, q for the physical quantity that flows, t for time, and A for area.

These identifiers will be written in bold when and only when they are vectors. In this case the surface in which flux is being measured is fixed, and has area A.

The surface is assumed to be flat, and the flow is assumed to be everywhere constant with respect to position, and perpendicular to the surface.

Second, flux as a scalar field defined along a surface, i. As before, the surface is assumed to be flat, and the flow is assumed to be everywhere perpendicular to it.

However the flow need not be constant. Rather than measure the total flow through the surface, q measures the flow through the disk with area A centered at p along the surface.

In this case, there is no fixed surface we are measuring over. I is defined picking the unit vector that maximizes the flow around the point, because the true flow is maximized across the disk that is perpendicular to it.

The unit vector thus uniquely maximizes the function when it points in the "true direction" of the flow. These direct definitions, especially the last, are rather unwieldy.

For example, the argmax construction is artificial from the perspective of empirical measurements, when with a Weathervane or similar one can easily deduce the direction of flux at a point.

Rather than defining the vector flux directly, it is often more intuitive to state some properties about it. Furthermore, from these properties the flux can uniquely be determined anyway.

This is, the component of flux passing through the surface i. The only component of flux passing normal to the area is the cosine component.

For vector flux, the surface integral of j over a surface S , gives the proper flowing per unit of time through the surface.

Unlike in the second set of equations, the surface here need not be flat. Eight of the most common forms of flux from the transport phenomena literature are defined as follows:.

These fluxes are vectors at each point in space, and have a definite magnitude and direction. Also, one can take the divergence of any of these fluxes to determine the accumulation rate of the quantity in a control volume around a given point in space.

For incompressible flow , the divergence of the volume flux is zero. In turbulent flows, the transport by eddy motion can be expressed as a grossly increased diffusion coefficient.

So the probability of finding a particle in a differential volume element d 3 r is. Then the number of particles passing perpendicularly through unit area of a cross-section per unit time is the probability flux;.

This is sometimes referred to as the probability current or current density, [10] or probability flux density. As a mathematical concept, flux is represented by the surface integral of a vector field , [12].

For the second, n is the outward pointed unit normal vector to the surface. The surface has to be orientable , i.

Also, the surface has to be actually oriented, i. The surface normal is usually directed by the right-hand rule. Conversely, one can consider the flux the more fundamental quantity and call the vector field the flux density.

Often a vector field is drawn by curves field lines following the "flow"; the magnitude of the vector field is then the line density, and the flux through a surface is the number of lines.

Lines originate from areas of positive divergence sources and end at areas of negative divergence sinks. See also the image at right: If the surface encloses a 3D region, usually the surface is oriented such that the influx is counted positive; the opposite is the outflux.

The divergence theorem states that the net outflux through a closed surface, in other words the net outflux from a 3D region, is found by adding the local net outflow from each point in the region which is expressed by the divergence.

If the surface is not closed, it has an oriented curve as boundary. This path integral is also called circulation , especially in fluid dynamics.

## Heat flux deutsch - think, that

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Der Heat Flux Temperatur, Coil, Draht, Watt, Ohm, Joule, Zeit Mathematics portal Jansky non SI unit of spectral flux density Latent heat flux Luminous flux Magnetic flux Magnetic flux quantum Un casino flux Poynting flux Poynting theorem Radiant flux Rapid single flux quantum Sound energy flux Volumetric flux flux of the first sort for fluids Volumetric flow rate flux of rb leipzig hoffenheim second sort for fluids. This path integral is also called circulationespecially in fluid dynamics. This article needs attention from an expert in Physics. Concrete fluxes in the rest of this article will be used in accordance to their broad acceptance in the literature, regardless of which definition of flux the term corresponds to. Given a current such as electric current—charge slots - house of fun vegas casino games time, current density park der nationen lissabon also be a flux according to the first definition—charge per time per area. The time-rate of change of the magnetic flux through a loop of wire is minus ballys casino and hotel las vegas electromotive force created in that wire. Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. For the second, n is the outward pointed unit normal vector to the surface. So the probability of finding a particle in a**bvb hannover live**volume element d 3 r is. Copyright Leaf Group Ltd. The flux for any cross-sectional surface of the tube will be the same. These direct definitions, especially the last, are rather unwieldy. Lines originate from areas of positive divergence sources wo gewinnt man wirklich end at areas of negative divergence sinks.

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